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解决四级快速阅读考点二

http://www.newpower.org.cn 发表日期:2013-10-22 17:32 点击数:2571

二、Scanning——跳读
  跳读其实对大家来说就比较熟悉了。首先是找准题干关键词,然后带入原文定位寻找答案。段落中与关键词无关部分可以一概略去不看。每次快速阅读考试都有几个直接定关键词就能得答案的送分题。比如2009年6月份第三题:
  3. What is becoming essential in the course of economic globalization according to the author?
  A) Hiring qualified technical and management personnel.
  B) Increasing understanding of people of other cultures.
  C) Constantly updating knowledge and equipment.
  D) Expanding domestic and international markets.
  题目问在经济全球经济一体化的进程中什么变得非常重要(essential)。本题的关键词为essential,带入到文章中很快发现它出现在全文第五段:Many of us have had similar encounters with behaviors we perceive as different. As the world becomes smaller and our workplaces more diverse, it is becoming essential to expand our under-standing of others and to reexamine some of our false assumptions. 题目简单就简单在essential之后的部分便是我们要找的内容——expand our under-standing of others and to reexamine some of our false assumptions(加深对异域文化的了解,重新审视自己那些不实的假想),答案选择B。
  快速阅读中的填空题更也几乎全部依靠跳读来定位。比如2010年6月第十题:
  10. Now that she's got a boyfriend, Toebe is no longer crazy about __________.
  题目的关键词当然是Toebe,再加上这又是最后一题,所以很快判断出应该到最后一段答案。
  Since then, Toebe said, she has kept her promise to herself to cut back on her Internet use. "I have a boyfriend now, and I'm not interested in online dating," she said by phone last week. "It's a lot better now."
  题目横线之前最后几个词是crazy about(痴迷于)。这个词组没有在原文出现,不过却出现了近义词组interested in,所以在其后的短语online dating就成为了本题的答案。
  结合刚才两道题大家应该看到,跳读的基础是要找准关键词。一般说来,专有名词、时间数字、特殊名词短语这三类词汇是最容易被选中作为关键词的,因为它们标记明显,非常易于辨认。
  不过近几年也出现了不少有一定挑战性的题目。例如2008年6月第二题:
  2. With the increase in the number of TV channels_________.
  A) the cost of TV advertising has decreased
  B) the nuiflber of TV viewers has increased
  C) advertisers' interest in other media has decreased
  D) the number of TV ads people can see has increased
  Television's influence on advertising is fourfold. First, narrowcasting means that television channels are seen by an increasingly narrow segment of the audience. The Golf Channel, for instance, is watched by people who play golf. Home and Garden Television is seen by those interested in household improvement projects. Thus, audiences are smaller and more homogeneous(具有共同特点的) than they have been in the past. Second, there is an increase in the number of television channels available to viewers, and thus, advertisers. This has also resulted in an increase in the sheer number of advertisements to which audiences are exposed. Third, digital recording devices allow audience members more control over which commercials they watch. Fourth, control over programming is being passed from the networks to local cable operators and satellite programmers.
  在本段中TV channels或者channel这个词多次出现给考生带来了不小的挑战。显然通读全段是不现实的。在这里也再次提醒读者注意,在应试过程中通读原文是万万不可采用的方法,很明显这样做也是违背了命题的初衷。比较现实的方法是找到该段中所有出现channel的句子,逐个与题目要求做比较,从而快速判断。一个个比较下来之后发现,在second这个词后面的句子是最符合题意的。“there is an increase in the number of television channels available to viewers, and thus, advertisers”——电视频道的增加意味着观众能看到的广告数量增加了。这样不难看出D为正确答案。
  细心的读者可能已经发现了,无论是skimming还是scanning,都有可能牵涉到一个结合题干事先判断有效句的问题。而且一旦题目深入到这个层次也就无一例外的成为了该年度考试中的难题。不过这种判断过程实际也是有规律可循的——重点考察句子的前半部分,特别是状语部分。下面以2010年6月份第5题为例加以说明。
  5. According to Orzack, people who struggle with heavy reliance on the Internet may feel __________.
  A) discouraged
  B) pressured
  C) depressed
  D) puzzled
  这道题目的关键词是人名Orzack,对应的段落比较多
  Excessive Internet use should be defined not by the number of hours spent online but "in terms of losses," said Maressa Orzack, a Harvard University professor. "If it's a loss [where] you're not getting to work, and family relationships are breaking down as a result, then it's too much."
  Since the early 1990s, several clinics have been established in the U. S. to treat heavy Internet users. They include the Center for Internet Addiction Recovery and the Center for Internet Behavior.
  The website for Orzack's center lists the following among the psychological symptoms of computer addiction:
  Physical symptoms listed include dry eyes, backaches, skipping meals, poor personal hygiene (卫生) and sleep disturbances.
  People who struggle with excessive Internet use maybe depressed or have other mood disorders, Orzack said. When she discusses Internet habits with her patients, they often report that being online offers a "sense of belonging, and escape, excitement [and] fun," she said. "Some people say relief…because they find themselves so relaxed."
  不少考生看到这儿就觉得无所适从,不知从何读起,更不知道从何处寻觅答案。首先要记住题目要求——与网络依赖想抗争的人会有什么心理反应。循着这个线索逐一比较这几个段落。首先排除第一段,因为它的开始部分讲的是过度沉迷互联网——excessive Internet use;第二段起始部分是时间状语——since the early 1990s,这个也不是题目所涉及的内容/同理排除第三段和第四段。一直到第四段第一句终于出现了与题干几乎完全重合的部分,由此判断答案必然在该句出现。果不其然,答案就是“People who struggle with excessive Internet use maybe depressed”——与网络沉迷抗争的人可能会感觉情绪低落,所以该题答案选择C。
  综上所述,读者朋友只要牢牢掌握好跳读与略低两个基本方法,再勤加训练就一定能在快速阅读部分拿到理想的分数。
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关键字: 四级快速阅读

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